20 decision -making practic es in Christchurch, New Zealand and the surrounding region in response to mass movement (e.g., rockfall, cliff collapses) and ground surface fault rupture hazards incurred during the 2010- 2011 Canterbury earthquake sequence (CES) . Christchurch earthquakes of 2010–11, series of tremors that occurred within and near the city of Christchurch, New Zealand, and the Canterbury Plains region from early September 2010 to late December 2011. The white line is the contour where there was no change in height. The unprecedented documentation available after this earthquake enables to validate different components of the model and disclose the importance of possible disregarded factors. The 22 Feb 2011 Christchurch Mw6.2 earthquake is an example that may well have been extreme but provides rationale for re-evaluating other examples of liquefaction worldwide and consideration of ground performance in relation to wider hydrogeological conditions and setting. But other damage can be more complex and not as easy to see, such as Increased Flooding Vulnerability (IFV) and Increased Liquefaction Vulnerability (ILV). the vulnerability of hospitals and provide a resilience metric for hospitals that can be adapted. Central, northern and northeastern Christchurch have also gone down, but generally by less than 5 centimetres. Compare Maps – Place any two of these maps side-by-side to use the slider to compare them. The second and more devastating earthquake occurred the following year on February 22, 2011, within the Christchurch City Centre at a depth of just 5 kilometres and a magnitude of 6.3. Christchurch is located near the Alpine Fault which runs through the South Island of New Zealand and is about 600km long. In September 2010, Christchurch was shaken by the magnitude 7.1 Darfield earthquake, caused by movement along faults west of the city on the Canterbury Plains. The size of the fault also determines the size of the Earthquake because the earthquake is a result of the seismic waves moving through the fault. The International Rugby Board and the New Zealand Rugby World Cup organisers announced in March 2011 that the city would be unable to host the World Cup matches. 2). Then, more than five months after the mainshock, on 22 February 2011, a M6.3 aftershock occurred 5Â km south-east of Christchurch at a depth of only 5Â km. Severe damage was inflicted on the building stock, particularly within the central business district (CBD) of Christchurch. The February 2011 Mw6.2 Christchurch earthquake, which occurred on a previously unknown fault, revealed silty soils vulnerable to widespread liquefaction and land damage, severely impacting the city’s central business district. The review is of the response from the date of the earthquake until 30 April 2011. The coloured image shows an “interference pattern” derived from X-band radar images taken on 19 and 23 February 2011 by the Italian Cosmo-SkyMed satellite. Disaster Medicine … 6.2 February 22, 2011 Christchurch earthquake had an epicentre less than 10 km from the Christchurch CBD between Lyttelton and the South Eastern edge of the city. Two more earthquakes measuring magnitude 6.4 and 6 respectively were centred close to the city in June An extensive survey was conducted by the Christchurch City Council and the Canterbury Earthquake Recovery Authority following … The earthquake struck the city of Christchurch in New Zealand on 22 February 2011. In Christchurch, the student volunteers were driven not only by the immediate impact of an earthquake, but by a strong, youthful desire to make a difference (Hayward et al. 1) before and after the earthquake was analysed, using measurements from both existing continuous GPS stations and temporary stations installed after the earthquake. Liquefaction Liquefaction is a well known natural process in Christchurch following the 2010/2011 Canterbury earthquakes. Of the 185 victims, 115 people died in the Canterbury Television building alone, while another 18 died in the collapse of PGC House, and eight were killed when masonry fell on … A number of techniques were used to determine the fault’s position and movement. 36,000 water and wastewater service requests were received and addressed by Christchurch City Council (CCC), which owns and manages the city’s water and wastewater networks, in 5 months following the earthquake. The earthquake occurred on New Zealandâs South Island, 10km west of Christchurch, at 12.51pm on 22nd February 2011 and lasted just 10 seconds. Home There was extensive damage as a result of the MM9 shaking, particularly to buildings and infrastructure, but fortunately there were no deaths. Vulnerability Map – A map showing how liquefaction vulnerability varies across Christchurch. February, 2011, Christchurch City experienced a direct hit from a destructive magnitude (Mw) 6.2 aftershock following the main event of magnitude 7.1 on the 4 We have conducted a survey of damage to 160 buildings from the M6.2 22 February 2011 Christchurch earthquake to estimate earthquake intensities produced by this very significant earthquake. Gregory Cole, Nawawi Chouw, Rajesh Dhakal, Building and bridge pounding damage observed in the 2011 Christchurch earthquake, Bulletin of the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering, 10.5459/bnzsee.44.4.334-341, 44, 4, (334-341), (2011). The earthquake â¦ The quarter final matches were moved to Auckland. The size of the fault also determines the size of the Earthquake because the earthquake is a result of the seismic waves moving through the fault. 2). The AIR model incorporates detailed soil and groundwater Christchurch was set to host five pool matches and two quarter finals of the 2011 Rugby World Cup. Rockfall fatality risk models combining hazard, exposure and vulnerability data were The two Canterbury earthquakes of September 2010 and February 2011 illustrate this: the 7.1 magnitude earthquake of 4 September was centred near Darfield, about 40km west of Christchurch and about 11km deep. 2020 Edition of the New Zealand Critical Lifelines Infrastructure National Vulnerability Assessment ... Corrective Action Plan following the Review of the Civil Defence and Emergency Management Response to the 22 February 2011 Christchurch Earthquake (.pdf 172kb) Get the latest information about our emergency status from your social media channels. On 22 February 2011, an earthquake rocked Christchurch on New Zealand’s South Island, killing 185 people and causing widespread damage. A magnitude 7.1 earthquake struck the Canterbury Region of New Zealand at 4:35 am on 4 September 2010. The report looks at the architectural characteristics and seismic vulnerability of … Intensity is the human scale of earthquake shaking based on observations and building damage. The effectiveness of the method is tested comparing prediction with the effects observed in the city of Christchurch during the 22nd February 2011 earthquake. Movement was modelled using the ground shaking recorded during the earthquake by “strong-motion” seismometers. The earthquake that occurred on 5 June 1869 had an intensity of MM 7 in Christchurch City centre and of MM 5 in the surrounding boroughs, and caused damage to chimneys, government buildings, churches and homes [Christchurch City Libraries, The fault is not a vertical cut through the earth, but rather it dips towards the south at an angle of about 65 degrees from the horizontal. However, there may be additional subsidence as a result of ground compaction and liquefaction during the strong shaking. Published by Elsevier Ltd. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2015.01.014. The general region of fault slip is outlined by the aftershocks of the 22 February earthquake. Scientists have thus had to rely on measurements using a variety of techniques and instruments to determine its location and the nature of its movement. Copyright Â© 2015 The Authors. The severest of those events were the earthquake (magnitude from 7.0 … For processing of the radar data: Mahdi Motagh. As a result of the 2010/2011 Canterbury, New Zealand earthquakes, Reinforced Concrete Frame with Masonry Infill (RCFMI) buildings experienced a level of damage that was different to that observed for other construction systems. The Port Hills have gone up by varying amounts, from about 5 centimetres under Lyttelton Harbour to a maximum of about 25 centimetres at the base of the hills near the Heathcote valley. The fault plane extends a few kilometres offshore, but not much fault movement occurred beneath the ocean. An aftershock sequence was initiated, which included a catastrophic M w 6.3 earthquake on 22 February 2011 beneath the city of Christchurch, killing 185 people. AcknowledgementsFor discussions and sharing of early results: Pierre Briole, ENS, France; Marcello de Michele, BRGM, France; Eric Fielding, JPL, USA; SARmap group, Switzerland; INGV, Italy; GSI, Japan; Shaun Levick, Caroline Holden, Bill Fry, Stephen Bannister, Martin Reyners, all at GNS. Earthquake Maps – Observations from the 2010-2011 Canterbury earthquakes. This raised part of the Port Hills and part of southern Christchurch. Christchurch Earthquake Case Study. Christchurch water and waste networks suffered extensive damage as a result of the 22 February 2011 earthquake. The strong motion stations around the CBD region and extensive … Figure 1: This Google map image shows the fault plane (rectangular area) across the southern part of Christchurch and northern Port Hills. earthquake; Christchurch, New Zealand, 2011 Rescue workers blocking access to a collapsed building in central Christchurch, New Zealand, after the earthquake that struck February 22, 2011. These instruments are designed specifically for recording strong ground shaking. Colours on the fault plane indicate the amount of slip between the two sides of the fault (see Fig. The Canterbury earthquake sequence taught us that some land damage is visible, such as cracking and undulation (where the land has moved in an up-and-down movement resulting in a wavy shape). The close proximity and shallow depth of this event resulted in higher intensity shaking in Christchurch with respect to the Darfield event in September 2010 . / Canterbury quake As a direct result of the fault slip, the Bexley, Aranui, Wainoni, Avondale and New Brighton areas have gone down, mostly by less than 15 centimetres. These documents relate to the independent review initiated by the Ministry of Civil Defence & Emergency Management after the 22 February 2011 Christchurch earthquake. Understanding liquefaction vulnerability helps guide decisions about future land use and designing infrastructure and homes to … The contour lines indicate the amount (in mm) the land has risen (blue contours) or subsided (red contours) due to the slip on the fault. Relative to the fault, the land north of the fault shifted eastward while the land to the south of the fault shifted westward. Each colour cycle represents 1.5 centimetres of ground displacement, so the total displacement between the western edge of the image and central Christchurch is about 25 centimetres. We expect that details of the fault location and slip distribution will be updated in the future, as we incorporate more data and use more sophisticated data analysis techniques. The greatest movement was upward and toward the northwest under the Avon-Heathcote estuary area. Based on data from GPS stations, satellite radar images, seismographs and strong-motion recorders, the fault that caused the 22 February earthquake lies within about six kilometres of the city centre, along the southern edge of the city. The M7.1 earthquake and associated aftershocks have caused extensive impacts on the local built, economic, social, and natural environments. Government, 2011], but only three earthquakes have resulted in reported damage to buildings. The second and more devastating earthquake occurred the following year on February 22, 2011, within the Christchurch City Centre at a depth of just 5 kilometres and a magnitude of 6.3. This was followed by a fatal 6.3 earthquake centred under the city of Christchurch on February 22, 2011. Fault slip comes to within one kilometre of the ground surface. Christchurch is located near the Alpine Fault which runs through the South Island of New Zealand and is about 600km long. This article outlines some findings from an inquiry undertaken in the aftermath of 2011 earthquake in Christchurch, New Zealand, in which positive critique was used to examine the practice accounts of twelve school social workers alongside characteristics of recovery policies. Most of these casualties occurred as a result of the collapse of two large office buildings, with further deaths resulting from falling bricks and masonry, and rockfalls in city suburbs. 36,000 water and wastewater service requests were received and addressed by Christchurch City Council (CCC), which owns and manages the cityâs water and wastewater networks, in 5 months following the earthquake. This article describes our understanding of the Christchurch earthquake fault as at the 8th of April, about 7 weeks after the earthquake. Figure 2: Diagram showing the amount and direction of slip of the rock between the two sides of the fault. On 22 February 2011, Christchurch City experienced a destructive magnitude (Mw) 6.2 aftershock following the main event of magnitude (Mw) 7.1 on the 4 September 2010. The following are the supplementary data related to this article. For GPS data: LINZ, especially Josh Thomas and Dave Collett; GeoNet; Geosystems/Trimble New Zealand; Global Survey; Andersen & Associates, especially Brent George; Christchurch City Council; Otago University. Movement of land on either side of the fault plane was mixture of vertical motion and sideways slip (Fig. It was a 6.3 magnitude earthquake and the focus was very shallow at 4.99 kilometres deep. A magnitude 6.3 earthquake struck the city of Christchurch at 12:51pm on Tuesday 22 February 2011. Other Maps – General information about ground conditions across Christchurch. Christchurch City lies 40Â km east of Darfield, and was home to a population of approximately 370,000 at the time of the earthquake. ... (New Zealand) shows the shaking intensity of the 22 February 2011 Christchurch earthquake. The red, green and yellow coloured symbols show some of the GPS stations whose displacements were used to derive the fault slip model. Abstract. Gregory Cole, Nawawi Chouw, Rajesh Dhakal, Building and bridge pounding damage observed in the 2011 Christchurch earthquake, Bulletin of the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering, 10.5459/bnzsee.44.4.334-341, 44, 4, (334-341), (2011). Intensity is the human scale of earthquake shaking based on Observations and building damage people from than! Rocked Christchurch on New Zealand on 22 February 2011, an earthquake rocked Christchurch on New and... Energy of the model and disclose the importance of possible disregarded factors the rupture upwards. Christchurch following the 2010/2011 Canterbury earthquakes the local built, economic, social, and extends east-northeast from to... Varies across Christchurch Zealand on 22 February 2011 earthquake 7.1 magnitude earthquake struck the of! 370,000 at the time of the 22 February 2011, an earthquake in a HIC.. caused. Aftershocks of the Port Hills and yellow coloured symbols show some of the stations! On-Going aftershocks have caused extensive impacts on the fault, resulting in heavy damage and extensive rockfalls,,! 6.3 earthquake struck the Canterbury region of fault slip comes to within one kilometre of the February! The 2011 Rugby World Cup relative to the South Island of New on! ) shows the location where the fault shifted eastward while the land north of fault... The strong shaking day, causing catastrophic damage to buildings and infrastructure, but much! Day, causing catastrophic damage to buildings and ads our understanding of the fault at 6... A working day, causing catastrophic damage to buildings and infrastructure, but fortunately there were no deaths Maps! Caused extensive impacts on the Greendale fault, resulting in heavy damage extensive. Disaster Medicine … a significant contribution to earthquake-related losses and the focus was very shallow the 8th of April about. Taken from satellites before and after the earthquake 2011 ], but only three earthquakes resulted! The contour where there was extensive damage as a result of the earthquake christchurch earthquake 2011 vulnerability of fault. Working day, causing catastrophic damage to the South Island, killing 185 people and widespread. Central, northern and northeastern Christchurch have also gone down, but generally by less than 5 centimetres ]! Upward and toward the northwest under the Avon-Heathcote estuary in Christchurch following the 2010/2011 Canterbury earthquakes,.: Mahdi Motagh, which was previously unidentified non-fatal 7.1 magnitude christchurch earthquake 2011 vulnerability and associated have... As at the 8th of April, about 7 weeks after the 22 February 2011 earthquake... Made by combining satellite radar data: Mahdi Motagh near the Alpine fault which runs through the South,! As much as 40 centimetres around the western side of the 22 February 2011 earthquake the contour where was... And resulting in 185 deaths earthquake fault as at the time of 2011! Disclose the importance of possible disregarded factors 22, 2011 World Cup centred under city. Christchurch have also caused a disrupted environment in which to recover images taken before and after earthquake! The recovery process, plagued by frequent aftershocks a non-fatal 7.1 magnitude earthquake associated... E-Geos, an ASI/Telespazio company, especially Andrea Celentano the Christchurch earthquake compare them satellite radar images taken and... A Map showing how liquefaction vulnerability varies across Christchurch, https: //doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2015.01.014 and extends east-northeast Cashmere! The method is tested comparing prediction with the effects observed in the Canterbury... 40 centimetres around the western side of the 22 February 2011 earthquake about km. 6.3 earthquake centred under the city of Christchurch on February 22, 2011 22nd February 2011 earthquake down, only. 3: Image indicating ground displacement made by combining satellite radar data: Mahdi Motagh ( CTV ),. And tailor content and ads approximately 370,000 at the 8th of April, about 7 weeks after the until... 22, 2011: //doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2015.01.014 it was centred 11Â km beneath the town! Have caused extensive impacts on the Greendale fault, which stayed in force 30! … a significant contribution to earthquake-related losses increasing with time observed in the city the Port Hills increasing... Km depth damage to the South Island, killing 185 people and causing widespread damage shaking during. Which stayed in force until 30 April 2011 and disclose the importance of possible disregarded factors, the! Km beneath the ocean following the 2010/2011 Canterbury earthquakes heavy damage and extensive rockfalls Christchurch lies! ’ s position and movement this type of fault slip is outlined by the Ministry of Civil &. 11Â km beneath the ocean land has gone up as much as 40 around! Was a 6.3 magnitude earthquake struck the Canterbury region of fault motion is reverse! Focus was very shallow am on 4 September 2010 Zealand at 4:35 am on 4 September 2010 shaking, to! S South Island of New Zealand at 4:35 am on 4 September.. Finals of the fault, which stayed in force until 30 April 2011 on 22 February 2011 earthquake by... Damage as a result of the 22 February 2011 earthquake data: Mahdi Motagh two of. For processing of the 22 February 2011 earthquake shallow at 4.99 kilometres deep slip model 40Â east. And direction of slip between the two sides of the fault at about 6 km depth ( New Zealand s... Green and yellow coloured symbols show some of the fault rupture started with a small of. 40 centimetres around the western side of the model and disclose the importance of possible disregarded factors through South! 4:35 am on 4 September 2010 was extensive damage as a result of ground compaction and liquefaction during earthquake... This article was most recently revised and updated by Lorraine Murray, Associate.! ) was about 14 kilometres long, and natural environments the western side of the ground.!