Start studying Intro to Psychology Exam 2. Used in operant conditioning research, an operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior, any event that strengthens the behavior it follows, increasing behaviors by presenting positive stimuli, such as food. Exam 2 Questions (PDF) Exam 2 Solutions (PDF) Reading Responses: Starting on the third week of class, you will submit a short reading response every week. an impression of having "already seen" or experienced something before, tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one's current good or bad mood. The processing of several aspects of a problem simultaneously. Chapter 1: How to Learn Psychology. Start studying Intro to Psychology Exam #2. A memory measure that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material for a second time. a measure of intelligence test performance devised by Binet; the chronological age that most typically corresponds to a given level of performance. When seen from a slight angle however, the image it casts is oval, yet we continue to perceive it as circular, the texture of objects is larger and more visible up close and smaller when far away; on curved surfaces, the elements of texture are also more slanted when the surface does not squarely face us, objects cast smaller images on the retina when they are more distant; as a result, parallel lines, such as railroad tracks appear to grow closer together the farther away they are from us, closer objects tend to be partially in front of or partially cover up more distant objects, The shadows cast by objects and highlights of reflected light suggest their depth. the view that psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes. two identically-sized lines appear to be different sizes when placed over parallel lines that seem to converge as they recede into the distance. In sensation, the transforming of stimulus energies, such as sights, sounds, and smells, into neural impulses our brains can interpret. Enclosed in this packet are the guidelines, instructions, and due dates for the assignments. a general intelligence factor that according to Spearman and others underlies specific mental abilities and is therefore measured by every task on an intelligence test. 2. Psychology Intro 2 Flashcard Maker: Kaitlin Obrien. the view that psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Please keep the following expectations in mind: 1. Intro To Psychology … Start studying Intro To Psychology Exam #2. a condition in which a person otherwise limited in mental ability has an exceptional specific skill, such as in computation or drawing. Some of these topics consist of learning and cognition, behavior, developmental and social psychology. the rules for combining words into grammatically sensible sentences in a given language, beginning at about 4 months, the stage of speech development in which the infant spontaneously utters various sounds at first unrelated to the household language. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 401), estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory; if instances come readily to mind, we presume such events are common, clinging to one's initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited, an effortless, immediate, automatic feeling or thought, as contrasted with explicit, conscious reasoning, the way an issue is posed; how an issue is framed can significantly affect decisions and judgments, our spoken, written, or signed words and the ways we combine them to communicate meaning, in a language, the smallest distinctive sound unit, in a language, the smallest unit that carries meaning; may be a word or a part of a word (such as a prefix), a set of rules for combining the words used in a given language. Some of the basic questions asked by psychologists, both historically and currently, include those about the relative roles of nature versus nurture in behaviour, free will versus determinism, accuracy versus inaccuracy, and conscious versus unconscious processing. The disparity or difference, between the images on the two retinas is a key factor in depth perception. Depression: A prolonged feeling of helplessness, hopelessness, and sadness 2. nerve cells in the brain that respond to specific feature of the stimulus such as shape, angle, or movement. Universities » University of Kentucky (UK) » PSY - Psychology » 100 - INTRO TO PSYCHOLOGY » Flash Cards PSY 100 Exam 2 - Flashcards Flashcard Deck Information (Myers Psychology 8e p. 418), mental quality consisting of the ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations. a mental image or best example of a category. the initial stage in classical conditioning; the phase associating a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus comes to elicit a conditioned response. the point at which the optic nerve leaves the eye, creating a "blind" spot because no receptor cells are located there. Test and improve your knowledge of Psychology 101: Intro to Psychology with fun multiple choice exams you can take online with Introduction To Abnormal Psychology (PSY 3604) These optional practice questions and … Access study documents, get answers to your study questions, and connect with real tutors for PSY 1100 : Intro to Psychology at Columbus State Community College. Study Introduction to ... psychology 107 test 4 (ch 7 & 9, lectures) 2011-06-27; psych midterm 2 2014-03-23; dis 1 - drugs and their effects 2012-02-12; You may complete a fourth assignment for extra credit. mental pictures; a powerful aid to effortful processing, especially when combined with semantic encoding, a method or system for improving the memory, The process of grouping items to make them easier to remember, a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli, a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli, an increase in a synapse's firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. In reality, both lines are exactly the same length, conscious dreamlike states of wishful fantasizing, the various classes of drugs including stimulants, depressants, and hallucinogens that alter conscious experience, relaxed state of dreamlike awareness between wakefulness and sleep, an abrupt movement that sometimes occurs during the hypnagogic state in which the sleeper often experiences a sense of falling, Rapid-eye movement sleep, characterized by movement of the eyes under the lids; often accompanies dreams, autonomic nervous system goes into hyperdrive; blood flow to the brian increases; heartbeat becomes irregular; the muscles of the face and fingers twitch; breathing becomes irregular, Internally generated cycles lasting about 24 hours a day that regulate sleepiness and wakefulness, body temperature, and the secretion of some hormones; body temp falls just as your are beginning to feel sleepy and continues to fall until the middle of the sleep period, deprivation of the deepest part of non-REM sleep has much the same effect as loss of REM sleep; restorative role, If sleep was limited; the next day they were irritable, fatigued, inattentive, and inefficient; protective role (autonomic storm), REM sleep influences the rate of neurogenesis by activating the expression of genes that control changes in the connections between neurons that are involved in memory, short, faint impressions that contain no emotions and are rarely remembered;resembles the ordinary process of thinking"; where night terrors, sleep walking and talking occur, dream content that is sim liar to events in the person's waking life, a stimulus such as a cold back influences your dreams to think you're somewhere like the arctic, according to Freud, the literal meaning of dreams, according to Freud, the true meaning of dreams that is found in the symbols in their manifest content, classical conditioning, Operant conditioning, Modeling/Learning from others, stimulus that can elicit a response without any learning, Unlearned, inborn reaction to an unconditioned stimulus, stimulus that comes to elicit responses as a result of being paired with an unconditioned stimulus, Response that is similar or identical to the unconditioned response that comes to be elicited by a conditioned stimulus, form of learning in which a previously neutral stimulus (CS) is paired with an unconditioned stimulus (UCS) to elicit a conditioned response (CR) that is identical to or very similar to the unconditioned response, learning in which the consequences of behavior lead to changes in the probability of its occurrence, any consequence of behavior that leads to an increase in the probability of its occurrence, the passage of time between the response and the positive reinforcement that leads to reduced efficiency of operant conditioning, innate positive reinforcers that do not have to be acquired through learning, reinforcement that occurs when (1) a behavior is followed by the removal or the avoidance of a negative event and (2) the probability that the behavior will occur i the future increases as a result, a negative consequence of a behavior, which leads to a decrease in the frequency of the behavior that produces it, Fixed ratio schedule (positive reinforcement), reinforcement schedule in which the reinforcer is given only after a specified number of responses, Variable Ratio Schedule (positive reinforcement), reinforcement schedule in which the reinforcer is given after a varying number of responses have been made, Variable Interval (positive reinforcement), reinforcement schedule in which the reinforcer is given following the first response occurring after a variable amount of time; produces high rates of steady response not good for initial learning, Fixed Interval Schedule (positive reinforcement), reinforcement schedule in which the reinforcer is given following the first response occurring after a predetermined period of time, tendency for responses to occur more often in the presence of one stimulus than others, tendency for similar stimuli to elicit the same response, process of unlearning a learned response because of the removal of the original source of learning, temporary increase in the strength of a conditioned response, which is likely to occur during extinction after the passage of time, form of cognitive change that involves recognition of previously unseen relationships, improvement in the rate of learning to solve new problems through practice solving similar problems, observed reinforcement of the behavior of a model, which also increases the probability of the same behavior in the observer, observed punishment of the behavior of a model which also decreases the probability of the same behavior in the observer, negative reaction to a particular taste that has been associated with nausea or other illness, learning based on observation of the behavior of another, the second stage of memory in which five to nine bits of info can be stored for brief periods of time, storehouse for info that must be kept for long periods of time; the third stage of memory involving the storage of info that is kept for long periods of time, strategy of positively reinforcing behaviors that are successively more similar to desired behaviors, the first stage of memory in which an exact image of each sensory experience is held briefly until it can be processed, mental repetition of info to retain it longer in short term memory, regrouping more than the short term memory capacity into units of memory, storage capacity of STM seven plus or minus 2, memory for meaning without reference to the time and place of learning, memory for specific experiences that can be defined in terms of time and space, memories are associated or linked together through experience, the finding that immediate recall of items listed in a fixed order is often better for items at the beginning and end of the list than for those in the middle, an alternative to the stage theory of memory stating that the distinction between short term and long term memory is a matter of degree rather than different kinds of memory and is based on how incoming info is processed, processed at a deeper level and will be kept much longer, processed at a shallow level and will be kept only briefly, the process of creating associations between a new memory and existing memories, the theory that forgetting occurs as the memory trace fades over time, the theory that forgetting occurs because similar memories interfere with the storage or retrieval of info, Old interferes with new; interference created by memories from prior learning, New interferes with old; interference created by memories from later learning, the theory that info stored in LTM sometimes changes over time to become more consistent with our beliefs, knowledge, and expectations, forgetting that is believed to be based on the upsetting or threatening nature of the info that is forgotten, remembering an even that did not occur or that occurred i a way that was substantially different from the memory of the event, a memory disorder characterized by an inability to retrieve old long-term memories generally for a specific period of time extending bak from the beginning of the disorder, disorder of memory characterized by an inability to store and/or retrieve new info in long term memory, a disorder involving both anterograde and retrograde amnesia cause by excessive use of alcohol, when they cannot remember something that is needed to complete a statement they make it up, can be engaged in a conversation but be aware of conversations in corner of room. beginning about age 2, the stage in speech development during which a child speaks mostly two word statements, early speech stage in which a child speaks like a telegram—"go car"—using mostly nouns and verbs and omitting auxiliary words. spinal cord has a neurological "gate" that blocks pain signals or allows them to pass. University. Course. Instructor’s resource manual for Psychology by S.K. the tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions; an impediment to problem solving. Visual image that is focused in front of the retina resulting in blurry vision is nearsightedness rather than visual image focused behind the retina is farsightedness. Broca's area Controls language expression-an area, usually in the left frontal lobe, that directs the ... Quizlet Created Date: According to the Cannon-Bard theory, we experience emotion _____ we become physiologically aroused. Familiar objects do not change in perceived size at different distances, A penny seen from straight ahead casts a circular image on the retina. the view that psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Biological, Psychological, and social factors contribute to the experiece of pain. A positive reinforcer is any stimulus that, when presented after a response, strengthens the response. Psychology chapter 2 test answers | Psychology chapter 2 test answers mcgraw hill introduction to psychology practice tests Nov 09, 2020 Posted By Sidney Sheldon Ltd TEXT ID 653ffd2a Online PDF Ebook Epub Library introduction to psychology practice tests by r april 28th 2018 mcgraw hill s connect is a web based assignment and assessment platform that helps you connect your transparent structure behind the pupil that bends and focuses light rays on the retina, the process by which the eye's lens changes shape to focus near or far objects on the retina. 2010: Practice Exam 2 Questions (PDF); Practice Exam 2 Solutions (PDF) 2009: Practice Exam 2 Questions (PDF); Practice Exam 2 Solutions (PDF) Exam. 10/31/2015 Intro to Psychology: Exam 2 flashcards | Quizlet 20/61 On the first day of class, Professor Wallace tells her geography students that pop quizzes will be given at unpredictable times throughout the semester. 56 Cards – 2 Decks – 2 Learners Posted on 5-Jan-2020. contains cochlea, semicircular canals, and vestibular sacs. links the pitch we hear with the place where the cochlea's membrane is stimulated. a mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people. in hearing, the theory that the rate of nerve impulses traveling up the auditory nerve matches the frequency of a tone, thus enabling us to sense its pitch. a mental representation of the layout of one's environment, belonging to someone or something by its very nature, not forming an essential part of a thing or arising or originating from the outside, the persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information, the processing of information into the memory system--for example, by extracting meaning, the retention of encoded information over time, the process of getting information out of memory storage, the immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system, a newer understanding of short-term memory that involves conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial information, and of information retrieved from long-term memory, unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time, and frequency, and of well-learned information, such as word meanings, encoding that requires attention and conscious effort. Study Introduction to Psychology discussion and chapter questions and find Introduction to Psychology study guide questions and answers. Choose your answers to the questions and click 'Next' to see the next set of questions. Academic year. The encoding of meaning, including the meaning of words. The disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information. a statistical procedure that identifies clusters of related items (called factors) on a test; used to identify different dimensions of performance that underlie one's total score. PSY 1010 Introduction to Psychology Chapters 1 – 5 Study Guide Reprinted from Ashe, D. & Hollister, D. (2006). A branch of psychology concerned with the links between biology and behavior brainstem Lower portion of the brain that connects the cerebrum with the spinal cord. Exam 2 Questions (PDF) Exam 2 Solutions (PDF) Introduction to Psychology Writing Assignments One of the requirements of this course is to complete three writing assignments. a branch of psychology that explores how people and machines interact and how machines and physical environments can be made safe and easy to use. There are different ways that one can be trained to behave in a certain way. The forum members have done a great job of breaking down the specific topics you'll want to concentrate on (3 pages worth for this exam). a coiled, bony, fluid-filled tube in the inner ear through which sound waves trigger nerve impulses. a test designed to predict a person's future performance; aptitude is the capacity to learn, most widely used intelligence test; verbal and performance subtests, defining meaningful scores by comparison with the performance of a pretested standardization group, a symmetrical curve representing the normal distribution, the extent to which a test yields consistent results, the extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to, the extent to which a test samples the behavior that is of interest (such as a driving test that samples driving tasks), The success with which a test predicts the behavior it is designed to predict; it is assessed by computing the correlation between test scores and the criterion behavior, (formerly referred to as mental retardation) a condition of limited mental ability, indicated by an intelligence score of 70 or below and difficulty in adapting to the demands of life; varies from mild to profound, a congenital disorder caused by having an extra 21st chromosome. Ch.1-Ch.4. Begins with sensory receptors and works up to brain sensory info., analysis that begins with the sensory receptors and works up to the brain's integration of sensory information. These optional practice questions and solutions are from prior years' exams. Psychiatrist: A medical doctor who has specialized in the diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders 4. A measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier, as on a fill-in-the-blank test. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Psy 3604: Intro To Abnormal Psychology, Section 002 Exam 1 Study Guide. The Introduction to Educational Psychology exam covers material that is usually taught in a one-semester undergraduate course in this subject. Access study documents, get answers to your study questions, and connect with real tutors for PSYC 1315 : INTRO TO PSYCHOLOGY at University Of Texas, Arlington. For objects in the air however, the farther they appear to be above the horizon the closer they appear to be to us, when both eyes are looking at an object in the center of the visual field they must angle inward more sharply for a near object than for a distant object. Meyer. we perceive objects higher in our field of vision as farther away, a monocular cues for perceiving depth; whereby larger objects are perceived as closer than smaller ones, as we move, objects that are actually stable may appear to move, if one object partially blocks our view of another, we perceive it as closer, parallel lines appear to converge with distance, perceiving objects as unchanging even as illumination and retinal images change, brain sees continuous movement in a rapid series of images, shrinking objects perceived as retreating; enlarging objects seen as approaching, an illusion of movement created when two or more adjacent lights blink on and off in quick succession, Tendency to see an object as the same shape no matter what angle it is viewed from, seeing an object as being the same size when viewed at different distances, perceive an object as having a constant lightness even while illumination varies, the tendency for a color to look the same under widely different viewing conditions, in vision, the ability to adjust to an artificially displaced or even inverted visual field, a mental predisposition to perceive one thing and not another. There will be no exam during the final exam period. To ensure the best experience, please update your browser. detect black, white, gray; neccesary for peripheral and twilight vision. The chemical sense which perceives or distinguishes flavor. Introduction to Psychology Chapter Exam Instructions. guided by higher-level mental processses on our experiences and expectations. University. Study of relationships between physical characteristics of stimuli. It includes basic facts, concepts, and generally accepted principles. He believed that psychology and the mind was not able to be studied through scientific inquiry. Diminished sensitivity as a consequence of constant stimulation. You are not allowed to use notes, equation sheets, books or any other aids. This is yet another of the exams that I suggest seeing the Introduction to Educational Psychology CLEP Exam-Specific thread at InstantCert for a complete listing of all exam topics. Behaviorist analyzes how organisms learn or modify their behavior based on their response to events in the environment. Intro To Psychology (PSYC 1101) Uploaded by. See how attentive you were by taking up the test below. Clearly, studying for Professor Wallace's surprise quizzes will be reinforced on a _____ schedule. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Once you are comfortable with the content of these sessions, you can review further by trying some of the practice questions before proceeding to the exam. Intro to Psychology Exam 2: Lecture 1 study guide by reggie_whittaker includes 30 questions covering vocabulary, terms and more. You are not allowed to use notes, equation sheets, books or any other aids. the ability to perceive, express, understand, and regulate emotions. On contemporary intelligence tests, the average performance for a given age is assigned a score of 100. a test designed to assess what a person has learned.