Journal of Divorce & Remarriage, 14, 33–46. Cathy Meyer. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 6, 454–474. The consequences of divorce for adults and children. 2013) and in the United States (Wu and Schimmele 2005). 2 (housing and domestic outcomes), Fig. This view of women bearing the highest burden of divorce and requiring more public and private support than their ex-partners is partly based on solid evidence. The divorce sample included respondents (1) who were initially observed sharing a household in a marital union, (2) who divorced across the observation period, and (3) for whom the year of divorce could be determined by consecutive observations in the panel. My measures of health behavior were also limited—particularly data about drinking behavior that were available for only a few panel waves and did not directly measure alcohol abuse. Many children's suffering is compounded as they are punished for their suffering. This context of a conservative male breadwinner model appears conducive to gender inequality in the effects of divorce, particularly regarding economic consequences for women. In subsequent years, women’s incomes recovered to reduce the resulting average gender gap from more than 11,000 Euros to approximately 6,500 Euros of equivalized annual household income (all income listed in 2011 values). Feijten, P. (2005). Thomas Leopold. “These boots are made for walking”: Why most divorce filers are women. Divorce is one of the major issues in the world today. Baruch, G., Barnett, R., & Rivers, C. (1983). The divorce rate for a second marriage is between 60-67%. The Journal of Men’s Health states divorce can have a greater toll on men than women. 4), whereas the frequency of visits to friends and neighbors was more responsive to the divorce process (panel f). In‐depth, qualitative interviews with 40 women and 39 men who have experienced a gray divorce were analyzed using grounded theory methodology. In the year of divorce, women lost approximately 40 % of their predivorce incomes, whereas their former husbands experienced moderate gains of approximately 5 %. Father-child relationships and nonresident fathers’ psychological distress: What helps and what hurts? Since women are more likely to initiate divorce, men may experience denial during the initial stages of separation. Social Forces, 81, 1459–1498. Union dissolution, unemployment and moving out of homeownership. To understand the difference, the same study conducted on people aged 65 and older revealed that 25% of … 1). Figure 1 shows gender differences in the consequences of divorce for four economic outcomes. Although it was important to control for these experiences before divorce, canceling out their effects after divorce would be undesirable because both factors could mediate divorce effects on several of the outcomes under consideration (see Amato 2000:1272). After separation, women experience a sharper decline in household income and a greater poverty risk (Smock 1994; Smock and Manning 1999). Gender Differences in the Consequences of Divorce 771 Housing and Domestic Outcomes of Divorce Housing and domestic outcomes figure prominently among the stressors associated with the divorce process. In Tables 2 and 3, I present descriptive statistics and detailed information about the measurement of all outcomes. A 2 x 2 (event x gender) ANOVA showed that people expect that they are more likely to have a happy marriage than a divorce (Main effect of event: F (1, 305)=78.20, p<.001), irrespective of gender (Effects involving gender are not significant at p<.05). Moreover, these losses are not easily compensated for given that interaction partners as well as social settings allowing to form new ties are not readily available to many divorcees. Their former husbands, in contrast, may even improve their standard of living in postdivorce years. Finally, social integration with friends and relatives was similar for the control sample and the divorce sample, but respondents from the latter group were more likely to experience feelings of loneliness. Because only characteristics that vary over time can enter the fixed-effects model, all time-constant variables drop out of the equation. An important benefit of these data is the large array of subjective and objective outcome measures combined with an extensive window of observation, allowing me to assess short-term and medium-term consequences of divorce as well as gender differences therein. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 62, 1269–1287. 2015; Smock 1994) and standard of living (Bianchi et al. This model is conducive to gender inequality in the economic impact of marital disruption, and the economic domain was the key area in which large and persistent gender gaps emerged. Women’s poverty risk surged upward in the year of divorce. (2014). Homeownership in later life—Does divorce matter? Second, where gender differences emerged, they were mostly short-lived. (1991). Marital status and happiness: A 17-nation study. 45, No. Herbers, D. J., Mulder, C. H., & Modenes, J. Findings for the German context have shown that women’s satisfaction with household income reached men’s levels shortly after separation (Andress and Bröckel 2007; Leopold and Kalmijn 2016). A further potential reason for the absence of medium-term gender differences in many outcomes is adaptation. They suffer in both similar and different ways depending on their gender. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13524-018-0667-6, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13524-018-0667-6, Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips, Not logged in 2005). Annual Review of Sociology, 36, 139–157. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 40, 111–125. Wagner, G. G., Frick, J. R., & Schupp, J. This large window of closely spaced observations allowed me to study gender differences across the divorce process. Leopold, T., & Kalmijn, M. (2016). Jeffery, R. W., & Rick, A. M. (2002). Depression in a child can be mistaken as a kid with attitude. I allowed for variation in the effects of time, captured by a set of dummy variables designating five periods: (1) 5 to 3 years before divorce (reference period), (2) 2 to 1 years before divorce, (3) year of divorce, (4) 1 to 2 years after divorce, and (5) 3 to 5 years after divorce. De Vaus, D., Gray, M., Qu, L., & Stanton, D. (2015). CNEF variables with extended income information for the SOEP (SOEP Survey Paper No. Regarding repartnering, my findings were consistent with earlier research showing higher chances of repartnering among men. Satisfaction with family life showed the strongest reactions to the divorce process among all satisfaction measures examined in this study (panel c, Fig. HYPOTHESIS 2. In contrast to the measures for income and poverty, these results on the subjective measures of economic well-being indicated smaller and transient gender differences. The effect of children on men’s and women’s chances of re-partnering in a European context. Grabka, M. M. (2013). These results suggest that research should consider both objective and subjective measures to understand gender differences in postdivorce economic well-being. Women and men did not differ much in terms of the consequences of divorce for (1) subjective economic well-being; (2) residential moves, homeownership, and satisfaction with housework; (3) mental health, physical health, and psychological well-being; and (4) chances of repartnering and social integration with friends and relatives. 1 shows, however, that despite these disproportionate losses, women’s average satisfaction with their household income dropped below men’s averages only in the year of divorce. Divorce effects, and gender differences therein, extend into various spheres, including changes in economic status, health and well-being, domestic arrangements, and social relationships. These findings on the absence of clear-cut gender differences are consistent with previous research on similar measures, including studies on subjective economic well-being (Andress and Bröckel 2007), health and psychological well-being (Strohschein et al. This gap of research precludes a broader view of gender differences in the multiple consequences of divorce. (1991). Debates about gender differences in the consequences of divorce as well as policies aimed at alleviating these differences often center on women’s vulnerability (Amato 2000; Diedrick 1991). However, gender differences in the effects of divorce on the probability of residential moves were relatively small and were significant only for women’s higher probability of moving 1 to 2 years after divorce (Table S5). In this study, I examined gender differences in the consequences of divorce by tracing annual change in 20... Introduction. Respondents from the divorce sample were also observed longer and less likely to drop out before the last interview in 2015. A re-evaluation of the economic consequences of divorce. The effect of marriage and divorce on women’s economic well-being. I analyzed data from 32 waves (1984 until 2015) of the German Socio-Economic Panel Study (SOEP), one of the world’s largest and longest-running household panel studies. Berntsen, K. N., & Kravdal, Ø. Kalmijn, M., & Broese van Groenou, M. (2005). Entry into romantic partnership is associated with obesity. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 61, 700–711. A second theme involves the chances of repartnering after divorce, commonly found to be higher among men. Given the time dependency of divorce effects, I controlled for life course profiles (changes with age) and the periodic profiles (changes across calendar years) of the outcomes. Third, my conclusions are limited to the West German context from which the data were drawn. Second, a comparison between divorce sample and control sample provided information about compositional differences and selectivity, indicated by the extent to which the event sample differed from control sample in terms of the measures used in the analysis. systematically address gender differences than previous studies have done. These friends may only know the divorcing couple as a married couple, making it increasingly difficult to separate an independent identity from the marriage identity. In my analytic sample, attrition rates were lower among divorcees than among those who stayed married. Confidence in the results for subjective measures of satisfaction in different domains of life is strengthened by research showing that the single-item measures used in this study are sensitive, valid, and reliable (Diener et al. Gender differences in satisfaction with divorce settlements. Three main findings emerged from the analysis. Diedrick, P. (1991). Horwitz, A. V., & Davies, L. (1994). The first and most intensely studied is theme parental strain associated with custodial arrangements. Last medically reviewed on August 7, 2017, Psych Central is proud to host a number of weekly podcasts on a variety of mental health and topics relating to mental illness. Signs of Major Depression Subtypes: Psychotic Features, Signs of Major Depression Subtypes: Seasonal Onset, Signs of Major Depression Subtypes: Introduction, Improving Diagnostic Accuracy: 1 Disorder Generating Another, Improving Diagnostic Accuracy: Other and Unspecified, Part 2. The gender gap in loneliness narrowed over the next years, although increases in men’s levels remained significantly larger than changes in women’s levels in the medium term. Women after divorce: Preliminary report from a ten-year follow-up. Although both genders can experience a midlife crisis there are differences in the way the symptoms manifest themselves. Because of psychological stress and often poverty, physical health is the outcome of these results. Paranoia is not simply synonymous with fear. Journal of Marriage and Family, 67, 27–36. None of the gender gaps in terms of health and well-being outcomes changed in meaningful ways when predivorce and postdivorce periods are compared. The same pattern was observed for women’s larger declines in satisfaction with household income, suggesting that gender differences in the consequences of divorce are generally larger in the short term than in the medium term. Gender differences in domestic well-being . This is not only true for a divorce that occurred early in the life of the child, but also for late divorces. In the domestic sphere, the measure of satisfaction with family life was consistent with the finding that the noncustodial parent suffers more than the custodial parent after a divorce (Bauserman 2012). ), Wohnen und gender. When actively dealing with divorce, men are more likely to use action rather than words to express their feelings. Although many people who have divorced twice continue to marry again, the success rates are not in their favor. Bröckel, M., & Andress, H.-J. Both wife and husband are greatly impacted by divorce. Health satisfaction, measured on an 11-point Likert scale at every panel wave, is a valid and reliable health measure that is highly correlated with other measures of self-rated health and predictive of objective outcomes such as mortality (Idler and Benyamini 1997). Research on gender differences in the consequences of divorce has typically focused on only one of these domains. A third theme comprises the consequences of divorce for social integration beyond the ties to partners and children. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 37, 339–349. Journal of European Social Policy, 3, 159–173. 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